A color-coded guide to urine

Normal urine has a yellow color, thanks to the pigment urochrome.  Urochrome is a yellow pigment formed when urobilinogen produced during the breakdown of hemoglobin is exposed to air. 

The pigment is specific to urine, but the intensity of its yellow color depends on the amount of water present in the urine. So generally normal urine can be straw-colored, yellow, or amber, depending on how dilute it is.

What color is abnormal?

Pale yellow to amber urine is normal. But the intensity of the color depends on whether it is dilute or concentrated.  Healthy urine may be clear or colorless if you drink a lot of water. But when you drink less, your urine becomes more concentrated and darker. That is why normal urine may appear honey or golden when you drink less water or are dehydrated.

Apart from fluid intake, several other factors determine the color of urine. For instance, urine color is affected by diet, vitamins, exercise, and medicines. A bright yellow pee color may be due to a high dose of vitamin B. 

When your pee color turns from the normal pale yellow to colors such as red, blue, brown, orange, or green, something may be wrong.  Of course, the usual causes of such changes may be diet, exercise, or medications, but these colors may also signal a serious health issue that requires urgent medical attention.

Here is a color-coded guide to urine appearance

  1. Clear urine

Clear urine indicates that you’re probably drinking more water than the daily recommended amount. Of course, being well-hydrated is good, but drinking too much can rob your body of some essential electrolytes.

If your urine is only occasionally clear, you shouldn’t be bothered. However, when it is always clear, then you should cut back on how much water you drink. 

Persistently clear urine even after reducing the volume of water you drink may indicate viral hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Hence, if your urine is clear for a while and you’re not drinking large amounts of water, then you should see your doctor.

  1. Pink or red urine

Your urine can have a pink or red color after you eat foods with naturally deep pink or magenta colors, such as beets, rhubarb and blackberries. But certain medications may also give a red or pink color. For instance, medications like senna or senna-containing laxatives, phenazopyridine (Pyridium), and antibiotic Rifampin, can give a red or pink color to urine.

If you can rule out these foods and medications, then a red color indicates hematuria (blood in urine). Hematuria can be due to a range of health problems, such as kidney or bladder stones, urinary tract infections, an enlarged prostate, and tumors of the bladder and kidneys.

 Extreme exercise can also cause hematuria if it produces muscle damage, a condition called “runner’s bladder.”

  1. Light brown or orange urine

Urine can be orange when you are dehydrated. But your urine can also be light brown or orange when it has a high amount of blood due to urinary tract infection or bleeding from the bladder (especially in bladder cancer). 

Some medications, such as phenazopyridine (Pyridium), the anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), chemotherapy drugs, and some laxatives can equally cause urine to appear reddish-orange.

  1. Dark brown urine

If your urine looks like cola, it may be due to dehydration or to some foods, such as fava beans, aloe and rhubarb. Some medications, like laxatives, antibiotics, and muscle relaxants may also give urine a dark brown color.

When these are ruled out, then the dark brown color may be due to hepatitis, other liver disorder, or kidney malfunction, especially if you also have yellowing skin and eyes and pale stools.

  1. Blue or green urine

Food dyes can turn urine green or blue. For example, methylene blue dye found in many types of candy gives urine a bluish tinge. Also, some dyes used to test kidney or bladder function can turn urine blue. 

Besides, your urine may be blue or green due to medications, such as pain-relievers, anti-depressant drugs, urinary tract infections (green), or the rare inherited disorder called “blue diaper syndrome” that occurs in children.

When should you seek medical attention?

You should generally be proactive in seeking medical attention when your urine maintains an alarming color that gets your attention. Colors such as red or pink may be due to a serious health condition requiring urgent medical attention.

At Advanced Urology Institute, we work with our patients to ensure they appreciate the importance of a healthy urinary system on their overall health. For more information on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of urologic disorders, visit our website “Advanced Urology Institute.”

What Are The Types of Hematuria?

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Hematuria is a health condition that is characterized by the presence of blood in the urine. There are two main types of hematuria: microscopic and macroscopic.

In microscopic hematuria, there is no visual evidence of the presence of blood, unless the urine is view under a microscope. Macroscopic hematuria, on the other hand, is evident immediately with red discoloration of the urine.

Hematuria can also be classified according to the cause of the blood in the urine. Both of these types are detailed further below.

Microscopic Hematuria

The concentration of blood in the urine is not visible to the naked eye in microscopic hematuria and can only be detected under a microscope.

Some individuals are affected by microscopic hematuria without an identifiable cause, which is referred to as idiopathic hematuria. This is thought to result from an increased excretion of red blood cells in respect to what is considered to be normal, although may not be associated with adverse effects on the individual.

Macroscopic Hematuria

Also known as frank or gross hematuria, macroscopic hematuria involves visible discoloration of the urine as a result of a greater concentration of blood in the urine. The color is usually described as pink, red or dark brown. Additionally, there may also be evidence of small or large blood clots in some cases.

It is not necessary for a large volume of blood to be present for the color of the urine to be altered. In fact, 1 mL of blood is sufficient to precipitate a change in color. Additionally, the volume of blood may not be an accurate indicator of the severity of the underlying cause, and even a small quantity of blood may have serious repercussion and vice versa.

Joggers Hematuria

“Joggers hematuria” is a specific type of hematuria that occurs as a result of recurrent damage to the bladder during activities such as jogging and long-distance running.

Classification by Cause

Hematuria can also be classified according to the cause of the condition, as follows:

  • Infective hematuria: due to pyelonephritis, cystitis or urethritis
  • Stones-related hematuria: due to staghorn calculi, calcium stones or uric acid stones
  • Trauma-related hematuria: due to pelvic trauma, renal injuries or foreign bodies
  • Renal hematuria: due to IgA nephropathy, hereditary nephritis, medullary sponge kidney or thin basement membrane diseases
  • Iatrogenic hematuria: due to recent endoscopic procedure, trans-rectal ultrasound, traumatic catheterization, radiation, indwelling ureteric stents, renal biopsy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
  • Benign hematuria: due to strictures, renal masses or benign prostatic hypertrophy
  • Malignant hematuria: due to prostate acinar adenocarcinoma or renal cell, transitional cell, squamous cell or urothelial cell carcinoma

Other Causes of Red Discoloration

While red discoloration is the most distinctive feature of hematuria, there are various other causes of this discoloration, which can result from numerous factors. These may include the presence of pigments such as:

  • Myoglobin (indicative of myoglobinuria)
  • Porphyrins (indicative of porphyria)
  • Betanin (in beets)

Additionally, some drugs can have a similar effect, including rifampicin, phenazopyridine, sulphonamides and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

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Who uses the Davinci Robotic System for kidney cancer treatment? – Dr. Evan Fynes


  • Dr. Evan Fynes, a urologist in Port Orange, FL, uses the DaVinci Robotic System for kidney cancer treatment, performing both total and partial nephrectomies.
  • The DaVinci Robotic System provides enhanced visualization and precision during surgery, allowing for more accurate tumor removal and preservation of healthy kidney tissue.
  • Robotic-assisted kidney cancer surgery results in reduced pain and faster recovery times for patients compared to traditional open procedures.

The DaVinci Robotic System has revolutionized various fields of surgery, including urology. Dr. Evan Fynes, a urologist in Port Orange, FL, specializes in using this advanced technology for kidney cancer treatment. In this article, we will discuss how Dr. Fynes employs the DaVinci Robotic System for kidney cancer procedures, such as nephrectomies, and the benefits it offers patients.

Robotic Surgery for Kidney Cancer

In the past, kidney cancer surgeries required large incisions and lengthy hospital stays. However, with the introduction of the DaVinci Robotic System, patients can now experience quicker recovery times and reduced pain. Dr. Fynes uses the robotic system to perform both total and partial nephrectomies. Total nephrectomies involve the removal of the entire kidney, while partial nephrectomies allow for the removal of only the tumor, preserving the healthy kidney tissue.

Enhanced Visualization and Precision

One of the key benefits of the DaVinci Robotic System is the improved visualization it provides during surgery. The system magnifies the surgical field, allowing Dr. Fynes to perform precise dissections and remove tumors with greater accuracy. This enhanced visualization is particularly beneficial for partial nephrectomies, where it is crucial to separate the tumor from the healthy kidney tissue without causing damage.

Reduced Pain and Faster Recovery

Robotic-assisted surgery with the DaVinci Robotic System is significantly less painful for patients compared to traditional open procedures. The smaller incisions used in robotic surgery result in less blood loss, reduced pain, and faster healing. As a result, patients can return home and resume their normal activities much sooner. According to Dr. Fynes, patients who undergo robotic-assisted kidney cancer surgery are typically discharged from the hospital in just two or three days, compared to five to seven days for traditional open procedures.

Advanced Urology Institute

Dr. Evan Fynes is a part of the Advanced Urology Institute, the largest urology practice in Florida. This institute is committed to providing the highest quality of care for their patients through the use of cutting-edge technology, such as the DaVinci Robotic System. By choosing the Advanced Urology Institute for your kidney cancer treatment, you can trust that you are receiving the best possible care from highly skilled and experienced professionals.


Back in olden days, so to speak, we used to make a bigger incision, and the patient would
be in the hospital five to seven days, and now with the robot, a lot of people are home
in two or three days after removing a kidney.
Hello, Dr. Evan Fynes, I’m a urologist with Advanced UrologyInstitute.
So the robot is also being used extensively for kidney type, kidney surgery, whether it’s
removing the whole kidney for somebody with a presumed kidney cancer, or a lot of times
these days we’re doing something called partial nephrectomies with the robot, where you’re
able just to remove the tumor and leave the kidney behind.
In regards to robotic surgery with the kidney, it just magnifies everything.
You’re able to get fine movements to dissect the tumor off, remove the tumor, and close
the kidney back up.
It’s also a lot less painful for patients.