Kidney stones: What are the treatment options?

If you’ve been diagnosed or suspect you have kidney stones, you will want to know about your options for treatment right away.

Kidney Stones: What are they?

Kidney stones are technically referred to as renal calculi. They are solid entities formed of different types of crystals. When they become large, they are extremely painful. They are called kidney stones because they usually start forming in the kidneys, but they can develop anywhere along the urinary tract, including

  • kidneys
  • ureter
  • bladder
  • urethra

What Causes Kidney Stones?

Kidney stones have several variations, and they originate for different reasons. Some of the causes are:

  • Calcium. Calcium-based stones are the most common type and somewhat preventable by avoiding high oxalate-rich foods like potato chips, peanuts, chocolate, beets and spinach. Ironically, although some kidney stones form from calcium, getting sufficient calcium in your food can prevent these stones.
  • Uric acid. These kidney stones are found more often in men than women. They develop when the urine becomes too acidic due to a diet high in purines (animal proteins) like fish, shellfish and some meats.
    Struvite. Struvite stones are more often found in women who have urinary tract infections or a kidney infection.
  • Cystine. Cystine stones are less common. They are hereditary and caused by leakage of cystine into the urine from the kidneys.

What Treatment is Available for Kidney Stones?

If the stones don’t go away by passing naturally through the urogenital system, you should contact a urologist for treatment. There are several procedures they can employ to remove the stones. The type of treatment depends on the size of the stones and type of stone.

Here are some treatments your urologist might recommend:

  • Medication: The urologist may prescribe pain medications and/or antibiotics in case of an infection. Other medicines also may be prescribed depending on what type of kidney stone is found, including: allopurinol for uric acid stones; diuretics to avoid calcium stones; sodium citrate or sodium bicarbonate, which makes the urine less acidic; or phosphorus solutions which are found to prevent calcium stones from forming.
  • Modern methods of breaking up the stones like lithotripsy, in which sound waves are employed, so stones are more easily passed.
  • Tunnel surgery is a minimally invasive procedure in which the urologist makes a small incision on your back to retrieve the stones.
  • Ureteroscopy: If a kidney stone is lodged in the bladder or ureter your urologist may use a ureteroscope to retrieve it. In this procedure a thin wire with an attached camera is inserted into the urethra and bladder, and then the stones are retrieved. Stones are examined by a lab to give more insight into the type of stones being formed.

Kidney Stone Prevention

If you are prone to kidney stones, try to drink 6 to 8 glasses of water each day to increase urine flow. This preventative measure helps flush out the kidneys. Your urologist may prescribe medication to help prevent future types of stones from forming.

If you think you have kidney stones you will want to speak with a qualified doctor to discuss the best methods to prevent and treat them. If you are in Florida, call the Advanced Urology Institute for an appointment with a board certified urologist.

Kidney Stones – Environmental Factors Can Increase the Risk

Video: Urology is The Perfect Specialty for Me by Dr Thomas Sander

A kidney stone is a mass of chemical crystals that forms in the kidney, ureter or bladder of an individual. Such stones may develop to different sizes and in different shapes, from tiny microscopic crystals to quite large stones. Kidney stones can occur at any age but are far more prevalent between the ages of 20 to 40. Contact a urologist now and get treatment for this condition as soon as possible. [Read Full Article…]

What Causes Kidney Stones? Dr. Edward King Reveals the Science Behind Their Formation


  • Kidney stones are more likely to form in warm, humid climates and in individuals who do not consume enough fluids, leading to concentrated urine.
  • Consuming foods high in oxalate, such as green leafy vegetables, pecans, and nuts, increases the risk of kidney stone formation.
  • To prevent kidney stones, maintain proper hydration, limit high-oxalate food consumption, and consult with a urologist at the Advanced Urology Institute for personalized prevention and treatment plans.


Kidney stones are a common and painful condition that affects many people across the globe. Urologist in Ocala, FLDr. Edward D. King, provides insights into the science behind kidney stone formation, emphasizing the importance of understanding the factors that contribute to their development.

The Role of Climate and Hydration

According to Dr. Edward King, kidney stones tend to form more frequently in warm, humid climates. This is because the body loses more water through sweating, leading to more concentrated urine. When patients do not consume enough fluid to compensate for this loss, the risk of kidney stone formation increases.

Diet and Oxalate Consumption

Dr. King explains that diet also plays a crucial role in kidney stone formation, particularly the consumption of foods high in oxalate. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance found in many foods, including green leafy vegetables (e.g., spinach and kale), as well as pecans and nuts. Consuming high levels of oxalate increases the likelihood of forming kidney stones, as this substance is not very soluble in water or urine.

The Formation and Migration of Kidney Stones

When kidney stones form, they begin as small crystals that grow slowly over time. The pain associated with kidney stones typically occurs when the stone migrates into the ureter, the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. This migration blocks the flow of urine, causing the kidney to swell and resulting in intense pain in the back, flank, and groin areas.

Prevention and Treatment

To prevent kidney stones, Dr. King recommends maintaining proper hydration and limiting the consumption of high-oxalate foods. Additionally, working with a healthcare professional, such as a urologist at the Advanced Urology Institute, can help patients develop personalized prevention and treatment plans.

The Advanced Urology Institute is the largest urology practice in Florida, offering comprehensive care for various urological conditions, including kidney stones. With a team of experienced professionals and state-of-the-art facilities, patients can expect exceptional care and support throughout their treatment journey.


Well, kidney stones often form in warm, humid climates. They occur in concentrated urine when patients don’t consume enough fluid.
It can also be diet related. There’s a substance called oxalate that’s found naturally in many foods such as green leafy vegetables, spinach, kale, pecans, and nuts.

So patients who consume foods that are high in oxalate are much more likely to form kidney stones because the substance oxalate is not very soluble in water or urine. Stones typically cause pain by blocking the flow of urine. When the stone is forming in your kidney, it starts as a small crystal and just grows slowly often.

When it migrates into the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder called the ureter, then it blocks the flow of urine. The kidney swells and that’s when patients get pain. There’s actually pain in the back or in the flank that radiates to the front and often down into the groin. It can be pretty intense pain.


Getting to Know Dr. Dinesh S. Rao: A Key Urologist at Advanced Urology Institute


  • Dr. Dinesh S. Rao, MD, is a skilled urologist in Ocala, FL, who is part of the Advanced Urology Institute.
  • Dr. Rao’s passion for surgery and interest in treating prostate cancer led him to pursue a career in urology.
  • With a strong educational background from Duke University, Dr. Rao is dedicated to providing exceptional care and innovative treatment options for patients with urological conditions.

Introduction to Dr. Dinesh S. Rao

Dinesh S. Rao, MD, is a highly skilled urologist in Ocala, FL, who is part of the renowned Advanced Urology Institute. With a passion for surgery and an interest in treating prostate cancer, Dr. Rao has dedicated his career to providing exceptional care and innovative treatment options for patients with urological conditions.

Finding His Passion for Urology

During medical school, Dr. Rao knew he wanted to pursue a surgical career. His interest in various types of surgery led him to explore urology, specifically the treatment of prostate cancer. As he spent more time with other urologists, Dr. Rao’s passion for the field grew, and he became increasingly interested in learning about surgery for prostate removal.

Education and Training at Duke University

Dr. Rao attended Duke University for his medical education, where he was exposed to a prestigious urology program. Duke’s urology program offered a wide range of prostate cancer treatments, further fueling Dr. Rao’s interest in the field. His experience at Duke eventually led him to stay at the university to complete his urology training.

Advanced Urology Institute: A Center of Excellence

The Advanced Urology Institute is the largest urology practice in Florida, and its team of skilled professionals, including Dr. Dinesh S. Rao, is dedicated to providing exceptional care to patients with urological conditions. With a focus on innovative treatment options and a commitment to patient-centered care, the Advanced Urology Institute has become a leader in the field of urology.


Hi, my name is Dr. Dinesh Rao.

I’m a urologist with Advanced Urology Institute. In medical school, I know I wanted to do surgery. I’ve always liked working with my hands, and I was very interested in different types of surgery. The more time that I spent with the other urologists, the more interested I became in
treating prostate cancer. That was really the driving force for me to spend more time with the urology service.

I went to medical school at Duke University, and they have a very big urology program there, so we did a lot of different types of prostate cancer treatments, and I became very interested in learning more about surgery to remove the prostate. I think it was really my time with that service that led me to say, I’d like to learn more about this and learn more about urology, and actually that’s why I stayed there to do my urology training.