Advancement in Prostate Cancer Biopsy

Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer found in men. The likelihood of it forming in the walnut-shaped prostate organ increases with age. Luckily, there have been many major advances in how prostate cancer is diagnosed and treated. When it comes to diagnosing, board-certified urologist Dr. Jonathan Jay says, “First we must define where it is, how much of it exists within your prostate, and then what its behavior is like.”

Answering the where, how, and what is key to determining the type of prostate cancer and how to watch or treat it. Urologists are using advanced technologies to answer these questions. Urologists want to know how aggressive a cancer is when determining how aggressively they need to treat it. They can use a molecular biopsy and a high-quality T3 MRI to pick up on aggressive cancers. If an aggressive cancer is found, urologists can perform a more focused biopsy.

Dr. Jonathan Jay - Naples, FLThis focused biopsy is called a GPS Guided Biopsy and it has some very important advantages over a regular biopsy. The cancer may exist in a very small portion of the prostate, especially early on. This small cancer can be missed during a biopsy just by a sampling error, leading to a diagnosis that may not give a completely accurate picture of the cancer. But with a high-quality MRI, a guided biopsy can pinpoint the growth and the urologist can detect and determine the type of cancer with greater accuracy.

When the cancer is detected with greater accuracy, the urologist can now follow it more closely and understand what type the doctor and patient are dealing with. The urologist can perform a biopsy on the cancer to look at and understand its genetics. If the genetics show that it is not very aggressive or growing, then the urologist may decide to watch the cancer, as treatment may not be necessary. MRI’s and patient follow up can be used to watch the growth to see if there are any changes that may require more aggressive treatment.

Along with MRI’s, the cancer can be monitored with rectal exams and prostate-specific androgens (PSA) tests. These tools offer insight into the patient’s specific prostate cancer and its progression. If it becomes aggressive, the urologist can recommend surgery or radiation therapy.

A diagnosis is the beginning of a patient’s cancer treatment. At the Advance Urology Institute, urologists like Dr. Jonathan Jay utilize recent advancements in prostate cancer biopsies to provide their patients with the most accurate diagnosis and best treatment options.

Female Urology Conditions & Treatment—Dr. Jonathan Jay

I am Dr. Jonathan Jay, a board certified urologist with Advanced Urology Institute. While I am board certified in general urology, I also did fellowship in female urology, voiding dysfunction and pelvic floor dysfunction.

Dr. Jonathan Jay of Naples, FLOne of the inevitable consequences of aging in women is urinary problems. With increasing age, the pelvic floor muscles—a group of muscles that support the bladder, vagina and rectum—face the risk of damage. Since these muscles need to relax in order to pass urine well or have smooth bowel movement, their disruption may result in urinary problems, such as incontinence, overactive bladder, pelvic organ prolapse or pelvic floor dysfunction. Tension in these muscles may also lead to pain during sexual intercourse, painful or frequent urination and lower back pain.

Aging and urinary problems

As women age, they may develop and overactive bladder, which means they urinate at all hours and with little warning. Many women suffer from incontinence after childbirth, a condition characterized by unintentional leakage of urine when coughing, sneezing, laughing or jumping. Childbirth may also cause injury to the pelvic floor muscles leading to weak spots in the walls and muscles of the vagina when adjacent organs move from their normal positions resulting in pelvic organ prolapse.

Informed decision-making

Unlike other specialties, such as neurology and oncology, urology offers a range of treatments that deliver great results for these conditions. Actually, most patients do get better after intervention by a urologist.

In fact, one of the reasons I chose this profession is that there are so many ways to help rectify problems and restore normalcy to people’s lives. As a urologist, I get the opportunity to care for patients in their declining years when urologic problems are so common. I care about both their medical and emotional challenges.

As urologists, we have the ability to find your problem when you present with symptoms. Once the problem is identified, we educate you on what you need to do and talk with you about the different treatment options available. I like counseling patients; talking to them about the bigger picture and helping them make informed decisions.

And as we define these problems, educate patients and talk about the different treatment options available, especially the positives and negatives, we help our patients to make choices that they are comfortable with. Still, because we understand that these choices have risks, we ensure that we provide enough information to minimize the risks.

Most urinary problems are not life-threatening, but are quality of life issues. That means that by resolving them, we restore confidence, meaning and hope into our patients’ lives.

What does the treatment involve?

When we make choices for treating urinary problems, we prioritize the least invasive procedures in order to minimize the risks. Typical treatment begins with a physical examination and evaluation followed by a discussion of options such as physical and behavioral therapies–including exercises to build strength in pelvic floor muscles–and reducing water, alcohol and caffeine intake.

As an option for treating overactive bladder, we may recommend nerve therapy, a procedure which involves placing a needle in the ankle to transmit electric stimulation to the nerves that control bladder function. We may also recommend more invasive options for overactive bladder such as Botox injections and an implantable bladder pacemaker.

Depending on the symptoms, we may choose to manage pelvic organ prolapse using silicon or rubber diaphragm called a pessary, which is inserted into the vagina to support the pelvic floor. We may also recommend vaginal medications or muscle injections to help with pelvic floor dysfunction. But if the problem persists or worsens even with these interventions, we may explore surgery as a last resort.

Remarkable outcomes

In urology, we are fortunate that most of the problems are clearly defined, the treatment path is clear, and the results are usually good. At Advanced Urology Institute, we offer everything, from observation, pessaries and medications to surgery. Fortunately, most of our patients do well and get better after we apply minimally invasive procedures.

We understand that many women with urological problems might not know how common and treatable these problems are—a fact that keeps them from seeking proper care. So at AUI, we try to provide information to the public so that people are aware that there are solutions for even the most awkward and uncomfortable urinary problems. For more information on female urology conditions and their treatment, visit the Advanced Urology Institute website.

Are Enlarged Prostate and Urinary Problems Common?

Enlarged prostate and urinary problems are quite common in Florida. At Advanced Urology Institute, we see hundreds of men and women with different kinds of urinary problems every month. And for men, the most frequent condition is enlarged prostate — also called prostate gland enlargement or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It is the most frequent problem for men over age 50; more than 50 percent of men have BPH by age 60. By age 85 and older up to 90 percent of men have the condition.

Normal part of aging

Just like gray hair, BPH is a natural result of getting older. But the trouble is, it is characterized by nightly trips to the bathroom which may become too frequent and eventually disrupt daytime routine. In some cases, an enlarged prostate may make it difficult for you to sit through a plane flight or meeting without getting up. So it can be a really annoying problem.

How does BPH occur?

As men grow older, the prostate gland becomes bigger with cells multiplying gradually and creating an enlargement that exerts pressure on the urethra. Since urine flows from the bladder through the urethra in men, an enlarged prostate blocks urine flow. With increased pressure on the urethra, the bladder is compelled to contract more forcefully to push urine through the body. With time, the bladder muscles become thicker, stronger and overly sensitive, beginning to contract even when only a small amount of urine is inside and triggering the need to pass urine frequently.

Eventually, bladder muscles fail to overcome the effect of a narrowed urethra and cannot empty all the urine. That means some urine is left inside the bladder every time after urination. When the bladder is continuously not emptied completely, there is an increased risk of urinary tract infections. Incomplete emptying also can lead to serious problems over time, including incontinence, blood in urine, bladder stones and acute urinary retention (the inability to urinate). In rare cases, incomplete emptying of the bladder may cause bladder damage or even kidney damage.

Symptoms of BPH include:

  1. Frequent urination
  2. Urgent urination
  3. Nocturia (frequent urination at night)
  4. Trouble starting urination
  5. Weak urine stream
  6. Urine stream that stops and starts
  7. Straining to urinate
  8. Inability to empty bladder completely
  9. Returning to the bathroom to urinate a few minutes after urinating
  10. Dribbling at the end of urination

In rare cases, signs of BPH also may include:

  1. Blood in urine
  2. Inability to urinate
  3. Urinary tract infection

A sudden and complete loss of ability to urinate is a medical emergency so you should see a urologist immediately. But you also should see a doctor whenever you are experiencing urinary symptoms, even if they are not really bothersome. Such visits to the doctor will ensure that the underlying causes of your condition are identified or ruled out. Remember that undiagnosed and untreated urinary problems may cause complete obstruction of the urinary tract, bladder and kidney damage and other serious problems.

At Advanced Urology Institute, we offer several safe and effective treatments for urinary problems. For instance, if you have BPH, we may:

  1. Offer a long course of antibacterial medication to treat bacterial prostatitis.
  2. Provide medication to improve your urine flow and relieve symptoms.
  3. Perform surgical procedures such as:
      • (a) Transurethral resection of your prostate (TURP).
      • (b) Transurethral incision of your prostate (TUIP).
      • (c) PVP (green light laser resection) or HoLEP (holmium laser resection) of prostate.
      • (d) Open prostatectomy for very large prostates.
      • (e) Urolift (transurethral insertion of clips to separate prostate lobes).
      • (f) Aqua-ablation (removal of prostate tissue with water jets).
      (g) Rezum therapy (removal of prostate tissue with steam).

So you don’t have to suffer embarrassing urinary symptoms when you have BPH. At AUI, we can fix your condition and enable you to live your life with freedom and confidence. For more information on our treatment options for BPH and other urinary problems, visit the Advanced Urology Institute website.

What is Erectile Dysfunction and How to Treat it?

Erectile dysfunction is the inability to have or maintain an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse. Any man may find himself occasionally unable to achieve an erection. That is normal. It is only when this inability becomes a sustained everyday occurrence that he may consider the possibility of erectile dysfunction.

The main factor for erectile dysfunction is aging, starting about the age of 50. Over 50 percent of men over 50 suffer from erectile dysfunction. Other risk factors include cardiovascular disease, high blood sugar, high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. Emotional and mental conditions such as depression and anxiety also can cause erectile dysfunction.

Treating Erectile Dysfunction

Men who suffer from erectile dysfunction have a number of treatment options. If it is a symptom of an underlying illness, treatment should be focused on the underlying illness. When erectile dysfunction appears with no underlying cause, the following treatment options are available and are highly successful.

1. Oral Medication. These are pills given to increase blood flow to the penis, thus causing an erection. The most common ones are vardenafil or Levitra, Cialis or tadalafil, viagra and avanafil. Oral medication is most successful in patients with mild cases of erectile dysfunction.

2. Penile injections. The most common injectible drug is alprostadil. Using a very fine needle, a patient injects the drug into the base of the penis. The drug increases the size of the arteries that supply blood to the penis. Alprostadil also can be administered by placing a small alprostadil suppository at the opening of the penis, rather than by injection.

3. Vacuum erection device. This is a tube with a hand or battery powered pump. The tube is placed over the penis and the pump is used to draw air out, creating a vacuum. The vacuum thus draws blood into the penis, causing an erection.

4. Penile implants. A minor surgical procedure is used to introduce bendable rods at the sides of the penis. These rods give the penis a firmness that allows for intercourse. An alternative of the rods is the insertion of fluid filled cylinders connected to a pump placed in the scrotum. Engaging the pump inflates the cylinders which causes the penis to firm up.

It is advisable for men, especially those approaching age 50, to maintain a healthy relationship with a urologist. An experienced urologist can diagnose and offer advice on the best treatment options. It is also important to stay informed on the causes, signs and symptoms of erectile dysfunction. Many professional sites, such as the one maintained by the Advanced Urology Institute, are very helpful. Advanced Urology Institute also has an experienced team of specialists who can help with consultation, diagnosis and treatment. For more information, visit the Advanced Urology Institute website.

Causes of a Weak Urine Flow

The inability to start or maintain urine flow, causing dribbling or weak urine flow, is called urinary hesitancy. It can occur at any age for all genders, but it is by far most common among aging men. Urinary hesitancy develops gradually but if left untreated, it can lead to a complete inability to pass urine, also known as urine retention. Due to its prevalence among older men, weak urine flow has always been associated with an enlarged prostate gland, a condition very common in older men. This, however, is not the only cause of a weak urine flow.

Causes of a weak Urine Flow

1. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH)

Benign prostate hyperplasia is the medical term for an enlarged prostate. As a man ages, the prostate grows to a size larger than what is normal. The prostate’s location around the tip of the urethra means that the enlarged prostate presses on the urethra and blocks the passage of urine. This whole or partial obstruction slows down the flow of urine. BPH is the main cause of a weak urine flow in men over the age of 45.

2. Underactive Bladder (UAB)

Dr. Jonathan Jay: Naples, FLAn underactive bladder is a medical condition characterized by weak urine flow and an inability to empty the bladder completely. The condition is best understood as the opposite of the overactive bladder (OAB) which has received wider attention and is known to cause urinary incontinence, the urgent and frequent urges to urinate. Patients suffering from an underactive bladder have a diminished sense of when their bladder is full and are not able to contract the bladder fully. The condition can occur when there is damage to the bladder peripheral pathways or to the lumbosacral spinal cord. It is also common in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, neurological diseases, Parkinson’s disease and pelvic fractures.

3. Bladder Outlet Obstruction (BOO)

As the name suggests, this is a condition that occurs when there is a blockage at the neck or the base of the bladder. The blockage completely prevents or reduces urine flow from the bladder. It occurs in both women and men, but is more common in older men. It can be caused by bladder stones, scar tissue in the urethra, bladder cancer or an enlarged prostate.

It is clear that weak urine flow has a variety of causes. It is very important to see a urologist to determine the exact cause of a weak flow. An appropriate plan of treatment can be set up once it has been determined what is creating the problem. It is recommended that you consider seeking out trained, experienced and board approved urologists if you are having problems with weak urine flow.

At AUI, we offer patient-friendly and multidisciplinary urology services for a wide range of problems, including weak urine flow. For more information, visit the “Advanced Urology Institute” site.

For more information, visit the “Advanced Urology Institute” website.

How is an enlarged prostate treated

An enlarged prostate, clinically known as a Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH), is a non- cancerous condition associated with aging in men. It is characterized by symptoms such as the frequent and sudden urge to urinate, weak urine flow and urine retention. The treatment of an enlarged prostate can be approached in various ways, depending on the extent of the enlargement and the seriousness of the symptoms.

In a majority of cases, the first approach after an initial diagnosis is that of watchful waiting. A urologist closely monitors the progression of the condition and advises the patient on what lifestyle changes,if any, he should make. Based on the outcome of this monitoring, a urologist may decide to move on to a particular course of treatment. This could be:

1. Medication

Dr. Jonathan Jay of Advanced Urology InstituteA urologist can prescribe medication to reduce the symptoms of an enlarged prostate and also to control the enlargement. The available medications include:

(a) 5- alpha reductase inhibitors. These control prostate enlargement by inhibiting the hormonal changes that encourage prostate enlargement. They include Proscar and Avodart.

(b) Alpha Blockers. These function by relaxing the muscles in the bladder and in the prostate, making it easier to urinate, which eases one of the major symptoms of an enlarged prostate. They include Uroxatral and Rapaflo.

(c) Combination Therapy. In some instances, doctors prescribe a combination of alpha blockers and 5- alpha reductase inhibitors.

(d) Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors. Ordinarily these are prescribed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. But research indicates they also can be used in treatment of an enlarged prostate, with specific emphasis on the drug Cialis.

2. Minimally Invasive procedures

When medication does not work a urologist might prescribe a minimally invasive procedure. These ordinarily involve the insertion of an instrument such as a lighted scope, to remove or destroy excess prostate tissue. Procedures under this category include the Urolift, where a urologist lifts and staples the prostate to open up the urethra, and laser surgery, where a laser treatment is used to vaporize the excess tissue.

3. Surgery

In extreme cases, a prostatectomy may be done. This is a surgical procedure to remove the prostate gland. It is not recommended for the treatment of an enlarged prostate but it provides a last recourse in cases where the prostate is very large or where a patient has bladder stones.

An experienced urologist should be consulted as soon as the first symptoms of an enlarged prostate manifest. The patient and the urologist can select a suitable course of treatment. Learning about the likely symptoms of the condition is very important.

For more information about BPH and how to diagnose and treat it, visit the “Advanced Urology Institute” website.