Female Urology Conditions & Treatment—Dr. Jonathan Jay

I am Dr. Jonathan Jay, a board certified urologist with Advanced Urology Institute. While I am board certified in general urology, I also did fellowship in female urology, voiding dysfunction and pelvic floor dysfunction.

Dr. Jonathan Jay of Naples, FLOne of the inevitable consequences of aging in women is urinary problems. With increasing age, the pelvic floor muscles—a group of muscles that support the bladder, vagina and rectum—face the risk of damage. Since these muscles need to relax in order to pass urine well or have smooth bowel movement, their disruption may result in urinary problems, such as incontinence, overactive bladder, pelvic organ prolapse or pelvic floor dysfunction. Tension in these muscles may also lead to pain during sexual intercourse, painful or frequent urination and lower back pain.

Aging and urinary problems

As women age, they may develop and overactive bladder, which means they urinate at all hours and with little warning. Many women suffer from incontinence after childbirth, a condition characterized by unintentional leakage of urine when coughing, sneezing, laughing or jumping. Childbirth may also cause injury to the pelvic floor muscles leading to weak spots in the walls and muscles of the vagina when adjacent organs move from their normal positions resulting in pelvic organ prolapse.

Informed decision-making

Unlike other specialties, such as neurology and oncology, urology offers a range of treatments that deliver great results for these conditions. Actually, most patients do get better after intervention by a urologist.

In fact, one of the reasons I chose this profession is that there are so many ways to help rectify problems and restore normalcy to people’s lives. As a urologist, I get the opportunity to care for patients in their declining years when urologic problems are so common. I care about both their medical and emotional challenges.

As urologists, we have the ability to find your problem when you present with symptoms. Once the problem is identified, we educate you on what you need to do and talk with you about the different treatment options available. I like counseling patients; talking to them about the bigger picture and helping them make informed decisions.

And as we define these problems, educate patients and talk about the different treatment options available, especially the positives and negatives, we help our patients to make choices that they are comfortable with. Still, because we understand that these choices have risks, we ensure that we provide enough information to minimize the risks.

Most urinary problems are not life-threatening, but are quality of life issues. That means that by resolving them, we restore confidence, meaning and hope into our patients’ lives.

What does the treatment involve?

When we make choices for treating urinary problems, we prioritize the least invasive procedures in order to minimize the risks. Typical treatment begins with a physical examination and evaluation followed by a discussion of options such as physical and behavioral therapies–including exercises to build strength in pelvic floor muscles–and reducing water, alcohol and caffeine intake.

As an option for treating overactive bladder, we may recommend nerve therapy, a procedure which involves placing a needle in the ankle to transmit electric stimulation to the nerves that control bladder function. We may also recommend more invasive options for overactive bladder such as Botox injections and an implantable bladder pacemaker.

Depending on the symptoms, we may choose to manage pelvic organ prolapse using silicon or rubber diaphragm called a pessary, which is inserted into the vagina to support the pelvic floor. We may also recommend vaginal medications or muscle injections to help with pelvic floor dysfunction. But if the problem persists or worsens even with these interventions, we may explore surgery as a last resort.

Remarkable outcomes

In urology, we are fortunate that most of the problems are clearly defined, the treatment path is clear, and the results are usually good. At Advanced Urology Institute, we offer everything, from observation, pessaries and medications to surgery. Fortunately, most of our patients do well and get better after we apply minimally invasive procedures.

We understand that many women with urological problems might not know how common and treatable these problems are—a fact that keeps them from seeking proper care. So at AUI, we try to provide information to the public so that people are aware that there are solutions for even the most awkward and uncomfortable urinary problems. For more information on female urology conditions and their treatment, visit the Advanced Urology Institute website.

Surgical Options for Overactive Bladder

If you feel frequent, sudden urges to urinate that you cannot control, you might be suffering from overactive bladder. This condition can lead to feelings of embarrassment or shame, but it’s a common problem and can be treated in a variety of ways. For many people, overactive bladder can be treated with lifestyle changes such as special diet, weight loss, regularly timed trips to the bathroom, and exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor. Dealing with symptoms by using absorbent pads is also an option.

However, for some people, these methods are not enough to ensure they can live a healthy, fulfilling life. In these situations, surgical intervention is an option to correct overactive bladder problems.

Augmentation Cytoplasty

One of the options for treating overactive bladder is called augmentation cytoplasty. This procedure increases the size of the bladder. The surgeon accomplishes this by removing a small part of the intestine and using it to replace parts of the bladder in order to increase its capacity. For some people, this procedure allows them to resume normal bladder function. For others, the use of a catheter may be necessary for the rest of their life.

Urinary Diversion Surgery

Another surgical treatment option for overactive bladder is urinary diversion surgery. This procedure involves diverting urine from the bladder. One option for bypassing the bladder involves linking the ureters, which normally connect the kidneys to the bladder, to an ostomy bag outside of the body. Another option involves the creation of a new bladder inside of the patient’s body, which means they will be able to continue normal urinary function.

Bladder Removal

Bladder removal surgery, or a cystectomy, is the last resort option for patients with overactive bladder for whom no other treatment has been successful. For men, bladder removal surgery also involves the removal of part of the prostate; for women, it involves removal of the uterus, ovaries and part of the vagina. Because this is a risky procedure that involves multiple organs, it is usually only used for more serious urological conditions such as bladder cancer or birth defects. Removal of the bladder necessitates the use of a urinary diversion such as an ostomy bag or a stoma.

An overactive bladder can be a debilitating condition, but there are many options for treatment. If you are dealing with this issue, the physicians at Advanced Urology Institute are here to help you reach a diagnosis and find a treatment to restore your quality of life.

InterStim Therapy A Contemporary Approach to Overactive Bladder

InterStim therapy is a treatment option for patients with an overactive bladder, a serious case of urine retention or an uncontrollable frequent urge to urinate for reasons other than an overactive bladder. It gets its name from the InterStim, which is a small implantable device used to administer the therapy. There are other forms of treatment for overactive bladders, including medication and physical exercises. InterStim Therapy is used for patients who have failed to respond to the other treatments or who cannot undergo the treatments.

What is an Overactive Bladder?

Dr. Samuel LawindyAn overactive bladder is a condition characterized by sudden, frequent and uncontrollable urges to urinate. The patient feels the need to go to the bathroom numerous times during the day and the night. Sometimes, due to the uncontrollable nature of the urge, patients may have urine leakage, also known as urinary incontinence.

An overactive bladder may be caused by a neurological condition that interferes with the functioning of nerves that transmit messages between the brain and the bladder. Contributing factors can include diabetes, bladder complications such as tumors or stones, urine retention and an excessive intake of fluids.

InterStim therapy is focused on fixing the disconnect between the nerves in the brain and those that control bladder function.

The Procedure

The InterStim device is implanted in the upper buttock area through a minor surgical process called a Sacral Nerve Stimulation Procedure. Sacral nerves are located around the tailbone and regulate the operation of a person’s urinary function. Bladder movements are determined by the communication between the sacral nerves and the brain.

In patients suffering from an overactive bladder or urge incontinence, an InterStim device is implanted to enhance or correct the communication patterns between the sacral nerves and the brain, ensuring the person has full bladder control. Before the actual InterStim device is implanted, doctors place a temporary stimulator to observe how the patient responds. This helps to project what the efficiency of a permanent stimulator will be. If the patient does not respond at all to the temporary stimulator, then it would not help to implant a permanent one.

The success rate of the InterStim device is high, with patients reporting relief from their symptoms almost immediately. It is important to consult a urologist before having the device implanted because not every person may be a good candidate for the procedure. Since the surgery is a relatively delicate one, a patient should make sure to see an experienced urologist from a reputable institution, such as those from the Advanced Urology Institute. The staff of experts at Advanced Urology Institute can help with any questions, preparations and surgery. For more information, visit the Advanced Urology Institute website.

Causes of a Weak Urine Flow

The inability to start or maintain urine flow, causing dribbling or weak urine flow, is called urinary hesitancy. It can occur at any age for all genders, but it is by far most common among aging men. Urinary hesitancy develops gradually but if left untreated, it can lead to a complete inability to pass urine, also known as urine retention. Due to its prevalence among older men, weak urine flow has always been associated with an enlarged prostate gland, a condition very common in older men. This, however, is not the only cause of a weak urine flow.

Causes of a weak Urine Flow

1. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH)

Benign prostate hyperplasia is the medical term for an enlarged prostate. As a man ages, the prostate grows to a size larger than what is normal. The prostate’s location around the tip of the urethra means that the enlarged prostate presses on the urethra and blocks the passage of urine. This whole or partial obstruction slows down the flow of urine. BPH is the main cause of a weak urine flow in men over the age of 45.

2. Underactive Bladder (UAB)

Dr. Jonathan Jay: Naples, FLAn underactive bladder is a medical condition characterized by weak urine flow and an inability to empty the bladder completely. The condition is best understood as the opposite of the overactive bladder (OAB) which has received wider attention and is known to cause urinary incontinence, the urgent and frequent urges to urinate. Patients suffering from an underactive bladder have a diminished sense of when their bladder is full and are not able to contract the bladder fully. The condition can occur when there is damage to the bladder peripheral pathways or to the lumbosacral spinal cord. It is also common in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, neurological diseases, Parkinson’s disease and pelvic fractures.

3. Bladder Outlet Obstruction (BOO)

As the name suggests, this is a condition that occurs when there is a blockage at the neck or the base of the bladder. The blockage completely prevents or reduces urine flow from the bladder. It occurs in both women and men, but is more common in older men. It can be caused by bladder stones, scar tissue in the urethra, bladder cancer or an enlarged prostate.

It is clear that weak urine flow has a variety of causes. It is very important to see a urologist to determine the exact cause of a weak flow. An appropriate plan of treatment can be set up once it has been determined what is creating the problem. It is recommended that you consider seeking out trained, experienced and board approved urologists if you are having problems with weak urine flow.

At AUI, we offer patient-friendly and multidisciplinary urology services for a wide range of problems, including weak urine flow. For more information, visit the “Advanced Urology Institute” site.

For more information, visit the “Advanced Urology Institute” website.

Urinary Incontinence in Women with Dr. Nicole Szell

When you complain to us about urinary incontinence, we will take quick vital steps to help you. For instance, if you are able to immediately provide a clean-catch urine sample, we will do a urinalysis to rule out urinary tract infection. We also will ask you to keep a three-day voiding diary to enable us to classify and identify the cause and severity of your incontinence. Then we will schedule a follow-up visit before we begin treatment to review the timing, quantity, severity and circumstances of your typical episodes of urine leakage, particularly those that you find most troubling.

Types of Urinary Incontinence

The treatment approach we adopt for each case depends on the type of incontinence and severity of symptoms. In women, the most common types are stress or urge incontinence, but some women may have mixed incontinence, where urge and stress incontinence occur simultaneously. When episodes of urine leakage occur following a physical act like sneezing, coughing, heavy lifting or bending over, that is stress incontinence. On the other hand, urine loss associated with a strong uncontrollable need to void is urge incontinence. So we will use the three-day voiding diary, medical history, physical exam and any necessary tests to determine what type of incontinence you have in order to administer the right treatment.

Lifestyle Changes

Once the type of incontinence is determined, we will embark on appropriate treatment for your condition. For example, if we find that you have early-stage incontinence with rare or less troubling symptoms, we will reassure you that your condition is not that bad and recommend a number of lifestyle changes to improve your situation. We are good at building close and abiding relationships with our patients, so we will explain the diagnosis caringly and instruct you compassionately on what lifestyle changes we want you to make. For instance, since timed voiding is quite helpful with nocturnal urge incontinence, we may instruct that you set an alarm every night an hour before the usual time you wake up with a deep sense of urgency and empty your bladder before it gets full to the point of leakage. We also may advise that you reduce your overall fluid intake, avoid caffeine, spicy foods or carbonated drinks.

Pelvic Floor Exercises

We often recommend Kegel (pelvic floor) exercises for women with stress incontinence. Well-timed, regular Kegel and bladder retraining exercises help to relieve symptoms and treat the condition. We will instruct you on the right technique for these exercises and work with you on a plan to help you practice them until they become second nature. We recommend that you begin by exercising the pelvic floor muscles 4 times a day and gradually increase this to 8 times a day, making sure also to use bladder retraining exercises to increase the interval of time you take between your bathroom visits. We will guide you all the way, checking on you to find out if there is any relief from the symptoms as you implement the exercise regimen.

Anticholinergic Medications

In case of a severe, debilitating urinary incontinence with very bothersome and embarrassing symptoms, we may give anticholinergic (anti-muscarinic) medications to eliminate bladder spasms and relieve the symptoms of incontinence. Some common medications we may recommend include Detrol, Vesicare, Ditropan XL, Enablex, Urispas and Oxytrol, with Oxytrol being available even without prescription. Apart from medications, we may advise you to use absorbent pads, panty liners or similar products, to prevent urine leakage or possible embarrassment from a potential leakage. A good example is the pessary, a plastic insert into the vagina, which we may recommend for supporting your bladder’s neck and preventing urine leakage associated with stress incontinence.

Surgery

If these treatments fail to give enough relief, we may opt for surgery. For instance, we may surgically implant small nerve stimulators just beneath your skin to stimulate the nerves controlling the pelvic floor area and manipulate the contraction of the muscles within your pelvic floor. Or we may opt for the sling procedure, a surgical intervention in which a strap of natural tissue or synthetic mesh is added to support the urethra. We also may conduct procedures to restore your bladder to its original position.

Are you worried about urine loss when you sneeze or cough? Do you always have to stop what you are doing and rush to the bathroom whenever your bladder is full? Or do you fear going out with your friends because of a possible urine leakage? Do not suffer in silence. At Advanced Urology Institute, we have been treating urinary incontinence in women for many years and have the tools and personnel to solve your problem. Whether you just started having urine leaks recently or have had the problem for so long that you have decided to avoid the social activities you used to love, we will give you the right treatment to help you recover. For more information on treating urinary incontinence in women, visit the “Advanced Urology Institute” site.

Treatment Options for Urge Incontinence

Urge incontinence is not an inescapable consequence of aging. In fact, a huge majority of women with the condition have been effectively treated or helped. The trick is simply not staying at home and giving up, but visiting a urologist as soon as possible for help.

Factors that affect the treatment decision

Effective treatment of urge incontinence in women depends on the kind of incontinence, personal preferences, underlying causes and severity of the symptoms. Where the condition has more than one underlying cause, the most serious cause will be dealt with first. Likewise, your urologist most likely will opt for the least invasive treatments first before moving on to invasive ones.

Treatments for urge incontinence include:

1. Behavioral techniques

These treatments include making certain lifestyle changes to improve bladder control. They include:

  • (a) Bladder training: Entails delaying urination once the urge to pass urine comes. You can begin by holding off urine for as short as 10 minutes and then extending the holding time to hours. The goal of holding off urine each time the urge comes is to lengthen the duration between your trips to the toilet by up to 2.5 hours to 3.5 hours.
  • (b) Double voiding: Means that you urinate and then wait for only a short duration (a few minutes) then try again to pass urine. The goal of double voiding is to achieve complete emptying of the bladder to avoid overflow incontinence.
  • (c ) Scheduled toilet visits: Planning your toilet trips so that you urinate every 2-4 hours instead of waiting for the urge to come, will help you improve bladder control.
  • (d) Diet and fluid management: To improve your bladder control, you may have to cut back or avoid acidic foods, alcohol and caffeinated drinks. By increasing physical activity, reducing liquid consumption or losing weight you can ease urge
    incontinence.

2. Pelvic floor exercises

Also called Kegel exercises, pelvic floor exercises can strengthen the muscles responsible for bladder control and urination. To help you learn and perform these exercises, your doctor may recommend that you work with a physical therapist or to try using biofeedback techniques.

3. Electrical stimulation

The urologist may choose to insert electrodes into the vagina to strengthen and stimulate your pelvic floor muscles. With gentle stimulation, urge incontinence may resolve. However, you may need several treatments over many months to be successfully treated.

4. Medications

There are several common medications that are effective in treating urge incontinence. They include:

  • (a) Anticholinergics: Include solifenacin (Vesicare), trospium (Sanctura), tolterodine (Detrol), fesoterodine (Toviaz), oxybutynin (Ditropan XL) and darifenacin (Enablex).
  • (b) Alpha blockers: These drugs relax bladder muscles and make bladder emptying easier. They include alfuzosin (Uroxatral), doxazosin (Cardura), silodosin (Rapaflo) and tamsulosin (Flomax).
  • (c) Topical estrogen: Application of a low dose of a topical estrogen, such as a vaginal patch, cream or ring can rejuvenate and tone the tissues of the vagina and urethra, helping treat urge incontinence.
  • (d) Mirabegron (Myrbetriq): This drug relaxes the muscles of the bladder, increases the quantity of urine that the bladder can hold and increases the amount of urine that can be passed at any one time. As a result, it helps to empty the bladder more completely and treats urge incontinence.

5. Medical devices and interventions

Devices such as urethral inserts and pessaries can help to treat or relieve urge incontinence. Interventional therapies such as using a sacral nerve stimulator,bulking material injections, botulinum toxin (Botox) injections and nerve stimulators also can be used to treat urge incontinence.

6. Surgery

The doctor or urologist also may use surgery to correct the underlying cause of urge incontinence. Common surgical procedures include bladder neck suspension, prolapse surgery, artificial urinary sphincter and the sling surgery procedure.

7. Catheters and absorbent pads

If the urologist finds that no medical treatment can completely eliminate the incontinence, various products can be recommended to help ease the problem, minimize discomfort and reduce the inconvenience caused by urine leakage. The most commonly used products are catheters, absorbent pads and absorbent garments.

Urge incontinence is a treatable condition. As a woman, you should not continue living with this problem since there are solutions to help you. At Advanced Urology Institute,we have helped thousands of women with urge incontinence recover from it. Come see us so we can fix the problem. For more information,
visit the “Advanced Urology Institute” site.

Common Treatment Options for Stress Incontinence

The treatment that a urologist may recommend for stress incontinence depends on how troubling the condition is to the woman and on the woman’s general fitness level. Often, the urologist will opt for fairly simple treatment options for a less troubling condition and only recommend surgical treatments when absolutely necessary. For instance, if an overactive bladder is present, the urologist will determine the possible contributing factors and recommend deterrent treatments such as fluid modification and caffeine reduction. Likewise, for women whose body mass index (BMI) is equal to or over 30kg/m2, the urologist will recommend weight loss.

Generally, the most common treatments for stress incontinence are:
  1. Weight loss: For women who are overweight or obese, losing weight helps to reduce urine leakage.
  2. Fluid management: For women who drink large amounts of fluids daily, cutting back on fluids reduces urine leakage. This includes reducing the amount of caffeinated, alcoholic and carbonated drinks. In fact, avoiding fluids 3-4 hours before going to bed helps a lot to prevent frequent nighttime urination.
  3. Avoiding constipation: Since constipation worsens urine leakage, increasing the quantity of dietary fiber to 30 grams or more per day will prevent constipation and reduce incontinence.
  4. Pelvic floor muscle exercises: Exercises for tightening pelvic floor muscles will help control stress incontinence.
  5. Bladder training: Bladder retraining helps affected women to regain bladder control and hold more urine for longer. Bladder training involves going to the bathroom on a specific schedule while awake and applying various strategies to control any sudden urges./li>
When the above options fail, the urologist may recommend:
  1. Bladder control medicines: For example, the drug duloxetine is used to treat stress incontinence in women who are unwilling or whose incontinence is unsuitable for surgical treatment. Collagen injections around the neck of the bladder may also be used when surgery is not ideal.
  2. Topical vaginal estrogen may be recommended for peri-menopausal or post-menopausal women with vaginal atrophy and stress incontinence.
  3. Pessary: A pessary, a stiff ring inserted into the vagina to push up against the wall of the urethra and the vagina, may be applied to reposition the urethra and reduce stress leakage.
  4. Catheterization: This treatment is used in women who are incontinent because the bladder never empties fully (overflow incontinence) or when the bladder cannot empty completely because of a spinal cord injury, past surgery or poor muscle tone.
  5. Biofeedback: The therapist puts an electrical patch over the bladder and urethral muscles, uses a wire to connect the patch to a TV screen where the contraction of these muscles is monitored, then with this information uses electrical stimulation and pelvic floor exercises to control stress incontinence.

As a last resort and depending on the severity of the stress incontinence, the urologist may opt for surgery. Surgery for stress incontinence is the most effective treatment for women who have not been helped by other treatments. Common surgical procedures are anterior vaginal wall repair surgery, colposuspension, surgical tape procedure and laparoscopic (keyhole) surgery. If you have urinary incontinence, speak with your doctor about whether surgery will help you and what type of surgery is perfect for you.

At Advanced Urology Institute, we have a solid track record of helping men and women plagued with urinary incontinence put their lives back on track. We have state-of-the-art facilities and skilled, board-certified urologists to assess, diagnose and treat any type of incontinence. For further help with urological disorders, visit the site, Advanced Urology Institute.

2 Kinds of Incontinence

Urinary incontinence (UI) is the involuntary loss or leakage of urine because of faulty bladder control. Due to pregnancy, structure of the female urinary tract and menopause, women experience urinary incontinence twice as often as men. And according to various studies, 25-45 percent of women in the United States experience some degree of urinary incontinence. In women between 20 and 39 years old, 7-37 percent report some degree of incontinence, while 9-39 percent of women older than 60 report daily incontinence.

Two types of incontinence

Urinary incontinence may result from functional abnormalities in the lower urinary tract or may be caused by other illnesses. There are two types of incontinence, stress incontinence and urge incontinence. Stress urinary incontinence is the involuntary urine leakage from effort, exertion, sneezing or coughing. Stress incontinence occurs because of weakened pelvic floor muscles. It is the most common type of urinary incontinence in young women and the second most common one in older women. This type of incontinence will lead to urine leaks when performing any activity that increases strain on the weakened pelvic floor muscles, such as walking, jumping, exercise, bending, stretching, sneezing, coughing, lifting, and even sex. The amount of leaked urine varies from a few drops up to a tablespoon or more, depending on the severity of the condition.

Urge urinary incontinence is the involuntary urine leakage that is accompanied or immediately preceded by urgency (an abrupt or sudden compelling desire to pass urine that is very difficult to defer). Urge incontinence occurs because of overactivity of the detrusor muscle, with its hallmark being a sudden, overwhelming urge to pass urine, accompanied by leakage or loss of urine. Nighttime urination and frequent urination often occur with urge incontinence. For some women with urge incontinence, even changing a sitting position or hearing running water can trigger bladder contractions and result in urine loss. While urge incontinence may occur in anyone of any age, it is common among older women. Actually, just 9 percent of women ages 40-44 suffer from urge incontinence while at least 31 percent of women 75 and older have the condition.

Seek immediate help

Involuntary leakage of urine is more than a health concern. It affects women on a psychological, social and emotional level. Women with urinary incontinence may avoid certain situations or places for fear of having a leakage accident. In fact, for a significant number of women, the incontinence may be so serious that it calls for changing clothes and avoiding certain tasks and exercises. Some women also may experience mixed incontinence, a condition where urge incontinence and stress incontinence occur at the same time. Therefore, it is important for women experiencing urine leakage of any kind to seek help from a urologist to determine whether they are suffering from urge incontinence, stress incontinence, mixed incontinence or another issue.

At Advanced Urology Institute, we understand that there are a significant number of women living with a lot worse problems than they should. We provide top-notch facilities and experienced board-certified urologists to help such women. For more information, visit the site, Advanced Urology Institute.

7 Types of Bladder Control Problems in Women

Bladder control problems are common for many women. They are characterized by urine leakage, a progressively weaker urine stream, inability to empty the bladder or the frequent urge to urinate and rush to a bathroom. Bladder issues often restrict a woman’s range of physical activities and may cause withdrawal from social interactions, resulting in a diminished quality of life. Causes may include weakness of the pelvic fascio-muscular supports, nerve damage, various medications for neurologic conditions and underlying medical disorders like kidney disease and diabetes. While these problems differ according to cause and contributing factors, urologists can help women regain bladder control by identifying the type of bladder problem and administering the right treatment.
The 7 most common types of bladder control problems in women are:

1. Temporary or transient incontinence

This is a short-lived episode of loss of bladder control that commonly affects more than half of hospitalized women and at least a third of community-dwelling elderly women. It is often a side effect of medications (such as sleeping pills and diuretics) that lower cortical control over the urinary bladder or stimulate overproduction of urine. They may also be caused by surgery, pregnancy, urinary infections, severe constipation, or an inflamed or irritated bladder, vagina or urethra. In all cases, temporary incontinence will resolve on its own as soon as causative factors are identified and corrected.

2. Stress incontinence

This is the involuntary loss of bladder control associated with activities that increase physical pressure and stress in the abdomen and bladder. Affected women report having urine escapes when they laugh, cough, sneeze, have sex, exercise or engage in heavy lifting. It is the most common type of incontinence among women, occurring at any stage of life due to the physical changes of pregnancy, childbirth or menopause, all of which weaken the pelvic floor and reduce the effectiveness of bladder supporting ligaments.

3.Urge incontinence

Urge incontinence is the loss of bladder control commonly resulting from abnormal nerve signals or nerve damage due to a cerebrovascular accident, an infection or diabetes mellitus. It is characterized by a strong, abrupt and urgent need to urinate without prior warning, followed by the escape of a considerable amount of urine almost at once. Women affected by this bladder problem report leaking urine on their way to the restroom, urinate more than eight times per day and usually have to get to the bathroom more than two times overnight.

4. Mixed incontinence

This type of incontinence represents a combination of the characteristics of both urge and stress incontinence, with affected women experiencing episodes of sudden, urgent and uncontrollable urge to urinate together with urine leakage after a sudden cough, sneeze or laughter. All the factors that trigger urge and stress incontinence also cause mixed incontinence, including abnormal nerve signals, nerve damage, weakened pelvic floor muscles and connective tissue abnormalities.

5. Functional incontinence

Unlike the other types of incontinence, functional incontinence is not caused by abnormalities in the urinary system, nerves or muscles, but it occurs when a woman is unable to reach the bathroom in time to void because of mental and physical limitations. For example, a woman who is handicapped (such as having arthritis, a broken leg, Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s disease) may not be able to move to the bathroom to urinate as soon as her bladder capacity is far exceeded, urinating where she is. Therefore, functional incontinence is a side effect of a mental or medical health issue.

6. Overflow incontinence

Characterized by the involuntary leakage of small amounts of urine when the amount of urine in the bladder exceeds the bladder’s maximum capacity, overflow incontinence occurs in women with weak bladder muscles, blocked urethra, kidney stones, scar tissue, pelvic organ prolapse, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. In overflow incontinence, the bladder has a substantial amount of residual urine and tends to overfill rapidly, resulting in the overflow of urine within a very short time. When not promptly treated, overflow incontinence can lead to bladder infection.

7. Overactive bladder

In some women, the inability to control the bladder is characterized by a sudden and unstoppable need to urinate, passing urine eight or more times per day and having to wake up two or more times every night to pass urine. In women with overactive bladder, detrusor muscles contract unpredictably and the inability to control the bladder can be so embarrassing that the affected person may want to isolate herself and limit her work and social life.
For women having bladder control problems, the good news is that a brief evaluation by an experienced urologist can quickly identify the type of bladder problem and pave the way for immediate treatment. If you have bladder control problems, inform your doctor and ask for help. Do not let your embarrassment keep you from getting the help you need. For more information, visit the site Advanced Urology Institute.